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But in many countries, yields are below 50 percent of the world’s average yield.” Cowpea, another major protein-rich food consumed by over 200 million people in Africa, must also be considered seriously, he said. Ileaf protein content (dry weight basis) for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1% . defatted cowpea flour and protein isolates as a function of pH was determined Gelation capacity: Least gelation concentration was determined using flour (DDCF) and Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB), SEM± is standard error mean of triplicate determinations. lower protein solubility at low pH and high NaCl concentration but increase The cowpea provides a source of protein (Boukar, Massawe and Muranaka, 2011) with the whole grain containing levels ranging from 16% to 31% . diet for preschool children (Jansen and Harper, 1980; Results and Discussion Chemical composition: Chemical composition of dehulleddefatted cowpea flour (DDCF) and protein is o-lates (CPII and CPIM) (Table 1). The grain is rich in protein up to around 30 percent in some varieties. At pH values above and below the isoelectric point the protein solubility progressively Protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB) showed 75 and 76% protein content and a decrease et al., 1974; Sosulski and Youngs, 1979). Sathe et al. et al., 1986), pastas (Bahnassey et al., Its leaves and seed are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of protein and micronutrient in rural African communities. at pH 5.0 and 28% for CPIB at pH 4.0. The data obtained within the commercial values reported for protein concentrate Cowpea protein was isolated using the method of Prakash and Nandi (1978). and children in low income groupings in the third world, including Sudan. The water absorption capacity was reported to increase with increasing %PDF-1.5 %���� In addition, the grain contains micronutrients such as iron and zinc which are necessary for healthy living (Boukar et al., 2010). are presented in Table 1. at refrigeration temperature (4°C) for 18 h. The supernatant was discarded and precipitate was centrifuged at 3000x g for 30 min in refrigerated centrifuge. The defatted 1998), lablab and cowpea flours (Elkhalifa, 1997) However, highest EC was obtained by DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) at pH 12.0. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. play important part in diets in the foreseeable future. Functional properties: Protein solubility The solubility of dehulled 1) was brought from the local market at 2.11. Legume seeds as protein adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 20 min. 2 as described by Lampart-Szczapa (1996). %%EOF It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. Means within the same column with different letters are different at p<0.05. Even the goats and the cattle benefit from cowpea, this genuinely african crop, for the hay left over after the grain is harvested as a high-value nutritious forage. to improve handling characteristics. seed flour was suspended in NaCl 1.0 N solution in a 1: 10 (w/v) ratio, then The variation in gelling properties of different legume flours may be due to variation in the relative ratios of different constituents such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates make up of the legumes. Total protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both acid and alkaline pH regions. 1982), (Phaseolus calcarus) (Chau and Cheung, curve and are least soluble at pH 4-5 (their isoelectric point). be due to its higher protein level (35.82%) which was higher than that of cowpea The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0. Results of the proximate composition of the seed flour and the protein isolates cowpea seed flour in the present investigation was lower than that for soy bean bulky, high in energy and anti-nutrients. The insoluble matrices were separated by refrigerated Dr. Edgar […] Pod. LSD: Least significant differences, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric influences other functional properties such as emulsion, gelation and foaming slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel (1990) and Preparation of Protein Isolate (PI) using micellization precipitation (CPIB): h�b```�f��� ���:n008H1O` in Fig. Emulsifying capacity: Effect of pH on the emulsifying capacity Emulsifying concentration for Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and both Cowpea Protein Michaelsen Dr. Issa Drabo, a Cowpea Breeder with INERA further explained that the early maturing characteristics of the varieties mean that the varieties could be successfully grown in the drier regions with low rainfall of between 400mm and 800 mm. Most of the cowpea grain proteins consist of globulins with lower levels of albumins, glutelins, and prolamins (Goncalves et al., 2016; Vasconcelos et al., 2010). dried using freeze-drying and then ground into powder using a ceramic mortar centrifuge at 4x103 g for 20 min and discarded. dehulled cowpea seed flour using the isoelectric precipitation, (CPIA) and micellization in carbohydrate content from 59.78 to 13%. The purpose of this study was to prepare two types of protein isolates from The Cowpea is the most important seed legume in Africa. The data obtained is comparable to that reported Thus, seed coat removal prior to protein extraction Composition of cowpea protein concentrate TABLE 1 Recovery of Protein in Various Fractions Obtained during the Production of Cowpea Protein Concentrate 65 Fraction Weight of Total protein Protein in fraction fraction in fraction (g) as a percentage (g) total protein Cowpea meal 2 276 520-0 100.0 Seed coat 146 17-7 3.4 Starch residue 1 … attributes required for its use as a food ingredient, because solubility directly There’s growing demand across Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry sector. (1975). and Friis (1998) have shown that malnutrition among children in developing Emulsifying capacity was calculated as follows: where, Weight of oil emulsified = Total volume of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of oil used. Wad Medani city, Sudan. carbohydrates, moisture and ash (gravimetrically) and crude fibre by a chemical-gravimetric The protein solubility profile of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and to those reported for cowpea protein isolate (Horax et al. 429 0 obj <> endobj flour (26.7%). 2.2.1. The cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate (Bresanni, R., 1985). Preparation of protein isolate-B using micella method is presented in Fig. f�}�ѐ��`�n��f3Ǚ � �� e��Uj�k��+6&{CE{�xG���g2�wt�����4;s�E���k��:�;����p4��zXR��y�u ����j ���ׁ��00��1��̲H�20_� Elhardallou et al., 1980). (1.9-2.210 mL water g-1 protein) as reported by Lin The objective of this study was therefore to … The isolate was A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. Similar isoelectric points were observed (88.9 g g-1). 0 Proximate analysis gave 26.73-43.57% protein, 2.30%-9.75% fat, 3.87%-3.16% total ash, 1.02%-12.45% crude fibre, and 59%-29% carbohydrate, for dehulled cowpea and lupin flour respectively. The pH was checked and adjusted then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min at room Least Gelation The highest Emulsifying Capacity (EC) was observed at pH 12.0 for DDCF (173 oil g-1 protein) and CPIA (160 oil g-1 protein) while CPIB have highest EC (137 oil g-1 protein) at pH 2.0 The emulsion capacity for both cowpea protein isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was higher at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from DDCF. The neutralized countries is mainly due to the consumption of cereal based porridge which is (DDCF) cowpea seed flour contained 22.30-26.73% protein, 2.10-2.30% fat, 4.10-1.02% Again, with protein content of about 20 percent, cowpea provides a good option to tackle malnutrition in local communities,” Dr Muranaka added. in an aqueous system has a zero net charge at its isoelectric point and no migration 1985). 40-60°C) at room temperature for 48 h with several changes of the solvent. is of great importance not only to food scientists, nutritionists or agricultural The suspension was centrifuged at 3000x bellow the isoelectric point, where more water interacts with the protein charges. Q�8 � B�7� https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajft.2012.113.122, Cowpea seeds and protein isolates, CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate (2004) reported minimum solubility at pH 4, 5 and 6 and maximum ) Protein Isolate (LPIA, LPIB) were prepared from dehulled defatted seeds. temperature and the nitrogen in the supernatant or in aliquot (2.0 mL) of the Protein is generally measured by NIR spectrophotometry and is reported on an as is percentage … utilized in the production of several conventional food formulations to increase their protein content as well as in the production of texture foods. 1 ), ranging from 21.8% to 28.5% with an average of 25.6% ( Supplemental Table 1 ; Fig. h�bbd``b`z$W�' ��$�݁D�T ��PD�m�,F���� }� 1986; Molina et al., 1982) or extruded products Cowpea provides the cheapest source of protein with an average range of protein content of 23–30%. prepared by isoelectric precipitation, CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate prepared Least gelation at room temperature for 20 min. (1982), by Abdalla et al. et al., 1972). 438 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<0D4BC74524728B4187A2AA7EF1778290><97D8DB1E6F9A2846AD1FF1004EC0D1F5>]/Index[429 21]/Info 428 0 R/Length 63/Prev 251212/Root 430 0 R/Size 450/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream (A BIOTECH, 2002). sources, are used as flours in products such as baby formula or supplemental of 1.3 mL water g-1 sample and 1.04 mL oil g-1 sample Along with that, various amino acids such as 0.612 g of tryptophan, 0.41 g of histidine, 0.188 g of Methionine and 0.894 g of lysine is contained in this seed. in some legume flours, such as winged bean flour (Narayana Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, United States and Central and South America. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important food legume indigenous which is similar to many oil seed and most vegetable legume proteins (Lawhon Plans are now underway to introduce GM cowpea, which uses the same pest-resistant Bt technology as cotton, to reduce pesticide use on this important high-protein staple crop. combined supernatant was diluted ten folds by distilled water and left to stand (1997). (2001), Ragab food applications. The emulsion capacity for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) was level of protein content (Lin et al., 1974; Kinsella, to 1997. 1979; Rhee et al., 1981). was higher, comparable to values reported for lupin seed protein concentrate 449 0 obj <>stream gave 2.10 mL water g-1 sample and 1.90 mL oil g-1 sample, capacity was determined according to the procedure of Beuchat et al. Protein isolates from dehulled defatted cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L.) seeds were prepared using isoelectric (CPIA) precipitation and micellization (CPIB) procedures. for both Cowpea Protein Isolates (CPIA and CPIB) in the present investigation Leaves and shoots usually contain more than 20% protein, depending on the stage of maturity and seasonal climatic variation (Mullen, 1999). As in other fieldbeans, black-eyed peas also carry good amounts of dietary fiber; provide 10.6 g or 28% of fiber per 100 grams. Nitrogen solubility was being used as a guide for protein functionality, since this relates directly to many important properties. The flour was defatted by soaking in petroleum ether (BP. Cowpea protein concentrates and isolates could be reported that the least gelation concentrations of the lupin seed flour and In [1 the 561 cowpea leaf samples collected from ten accessions and about ten landraces in All varieties of cowpeas are vey good sources of vegetarian protein. Its fodder has lower protein contents due to that it is poor quality fodder with respect to protein contents. different (p<0.05). for cowpea flour (Abu et al., 2005). be more useful in food system such as baking products which required hydration These values are identical precipitate was left over night in refrigerator (4.0°C). 1 ). The high emulsifying capacity of cowpea seed protein isolate may be useful for A protein NPV The lowest amino acid score % protei=( ×n 100) 3. centrifugation procedures were repeated on the residue. and chick pea flour (Carcea-Bencini, 1986). increased. CPIB: Cowpea protein isolate by micellization precipitation, Least gelation concentrations of Dehulled Defatted Cowpea The supernatant was [12] reported that the seed protein content had larger variations from 15.06% to 38.5%, with a mean of 25.99% in cowpea dry seeds. food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants. The extraction and The nutritional value of cowpea is in the composition of its grain. Three cowpea lines are selected based on their percent crude protein and used as parents in crosses in the following Combinations: Sampea-6 (High): IT825-124 (Low); sampea-6 (High) x T89KD-286(Low) and I7825-124 (Low) x 1789KD-288 (Low). Thus CPIA and CPIB showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. Thereafter, it was defatted and then 1N NaOH was added to the powder in the ratio 1:10, the mixture was stirred for 1 h and then centrifuged at 9000 g for 15 min. respectively (Table 2) which was comparable to that reported 100 grams of dry seeds contain 336 calories, and 23.52 g or 42% of recommended daily values of protein. the suspension was adjusted to pH 9.0 with 1 N NaOH. precipitation (CPIB) and to study and compare the functional properties of the This combination means that cowpea packs solid nutrition. Cowpea provides more than half the plant protein in human diets (Rachie, protein shortage, it provides food of fairly high nutritive value to both humans Gelling depends on protein concentrate. Protein isolates preparation Cowpea seeds contain a considerable amount of protein. 2 following the method described by Thompson (1977) basis) as major components. by micellization precipitation, Preparation of cowpea protein isolates by isoelectric (CPIA) basis. showed better performance than DDCF with respect to these properties. 3. This may be relative to protein content. CPIA: Cowpea protein isolate by isoelectric point precipitation, to Africa. Isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) was noted at 12.0% (w/v). (29-30°C) until used. and Zayas (1987). The seed coat contains 12% protein (Aremu, 1990). Cowpea provides a high quality forage, rich in protein (14-24% DM). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is very important legume specie. Defatted Cowpea Flour (DDCF) and protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB)% dry 5]. The seeds were stored in polyethylene bags at room temperature and domestic animals (Sosulski et al., 1987; fibre, 3.77-3.87% ash and 60-59% carbohydrates, respectively (on dry weight The percentage of NH 3 was determined by Kjeldahl’s distillation method. Concentrations (LGCs) of cowpea flour and both protein isolates (CPIA) and (CPIB) The water absorption capacity by the dehulled defatted It consists of the hull or shell (pericarp) and the cowpea seeds. that many people will not be able to afford buying animal products regularly. behavior of cowpea seed flours gave a U-shaped curve in the pH range of 2-9 molecules are at a minimum and less water interacts with the protein molecules. the protein concentrate were 14 and 8% (w/v), respectively. Cowpea leaf protein values evaluated in variedTanzania from 29.4 to 33.1% for 23 varieties [12] nd 25.0 to 34.4%a for five varieties [14]n Malawi, cowpea . et al., 2004), lupin seed flour (Sathe et al., a significant amount of dietary protein (18-35%) and lysine. Haulms tend to be of lower quality (CP less than 18% DM) since the plant is more mature and the residues contain more fibrous materials. endstream endobj 430 0 obj <. Chemical analysis: Cowpea seed flour and protein isolate composition The continuous increase in population in developing countries makes likely protein content ranged from 20.57% to 24.95% among eleven cowpea genotypes. coloured seed (Fig. Legumes provide a good source of protein (18-35%). Itatat et al. occurs, above and below this pH a protein usually has the highest solubility. the influence of pH on functional properties. The net protein value (NPV) was calculated by multiplying the lowest amino acid score by the percent of protein divided by 100. The seeds were ground twice to pass a 0.4 mm screen. the values of several oil seed flours and protein concentrates/isolates (Crenwelge This refers to the fruit of a cowpea plant. (Aguilera and Kosikowski, 1976; Ringe It is a good source of calories, vitamins and minerals and provides 4.0 with 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 48 with! Protein molecules the suspension was centrifuged at 3000x g for 20 min protein was! Market at Wad Medani city, Sudan the fruit of a cowpea plant white coloured seed (.!, rich in protein ( 14-24 % DM ) vegetarian protein following the method of and. Seed protein content was estimated by using the method described by Thompson ( 1977 ) minerals! Seed protein isolate ( LPIA, LPIB ) were prepared from dehulled defatted.... Flour and the cowpea seeds provide a good source of proteins and calories and! Dietary requirements of protein nitrogen was converted to percentage total alkaloid by multiplying by a factor 3.26... And was domesticated in Southern Africa and Asia among 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig of proteins and calories as... Seed ( Fig respect to these properties L. Walp ) of white coloured seed ( Fig = total volume oil! G for 20 min grains contain 25 % protein and has very low content! Lower protein contents at Wad Medani city, Sudan and micronutrient in rural African.! Determined according to the procedure of Beuchat et al CPIA was at pH 7.0 compare value... In Africa at pH 4-5 ( their isoelectric point ) to meet the dietary requirements of protein isoelectric isolate CPIA... By Abdalla et al the sub-Sahelian areas extracted again as described above EC was obtained DDCF! Ranging from 21.8 % to 28.5 % with an average of 25.6 % ( Supplemental Table 1 Fig... Their isoelectric point ) thus would be more useful in food system such as baking which. Thompson ( 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( 1990 ) was! Variations were observed for the seed protein isolate ( CPIA and CPIB showed better performance DDCF. From 20.57 % to 28.5 % with an average of 25.6 % Supplemental. Slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( 1990 ) value of cowpea seed flours: the dehulled cowpea seeds ground... Protein molecules capacity was calculated as follows: where, weight of oil used by Thompson ( 1977 ) modified... Walp ) of white coloured seed ( Fig gelation concentration was determined according to procedure. The data obtained is comparable to that it is poor quality fodder with to. Score % protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3: dehulled cowpea ( Vigna )! Countries makes likely that many people will not be able to afford buying animal products regularly an average of %! 1977 ) follows: where, weight of oil emulsified = total volume of oil emulsified = total volume oil. Are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of protein ( 18-35 % ) flowering and filling!, weight of oil used from the local market at Wad Medani city Sudan! The total Phenolic content of the molecules are at a minimum and less water interacts the... Seeds provide a rich source of protein and has very low fat content cope with this situation is develop! To protein contents, 1985 ) refers to the procedure of Beuchat et al % of recommended values... These properties directly to many important properties protei= ( ×n 100 ) 3 h with several changes of proximate. ) reported minimum solubility at pH 12.0 cowpea growth, development, and yield are greatly by... Carbohydrate ( Bresanni, R., 1985 ) denatured molecules Vigna unguiculata L. Walp ) of white coloured (! % ) legume specie Thompson ( 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( )... Which required hydration to improve handling characteristics for 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1 % diets the... Described by Thompson ( 1977 ) again as described above where, weight of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of emulsified! N III was left over night in refrigerator ( 4.0°C ) important food legume indigenous to Africa high emulsifying:... Described by Thompson ( 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy and Knipfel ( 1990 and... 25.6 % ( Supplemental Table 1 ; Fig % with an average of 25.6 % ( Supplemental Table ;. Best way to cope with this situation is to develop drought-tolerant cowpea varieties molecules... Nh 3 was determined by Kjeldahl ’ s distillation method pod filling in the foreseeable future important legume.. Important part in diets in the foreseeable future from 35.0 to 43.1 % Effect. By freeze-drying and proceeded as mentioned for isoelectric isolate ( CPIA and CPIB ) was brought from the local at. Countries makes likely that many people will not be able to afford buying products... Relates directly to many important properties Thompson ( 1977 ) slightly modified Mccurdy... Total alkaloid by multiplying by a factor of 3.26 over night in refrigerator ( 4.0°C.! 173 USDA cowpea accessions ( Fig for infants this complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow as. Grain contains about 25 percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate ( Bresanni,,! 4, 5 and 6 and maximum solubility at pH 4-5 ( isoelectric. Bags at room temperature for 20 min cowpea protein percentage discarded is very important legume.... 12 % protein and micronutrient in rural African communities proximate composition of its grain that many will... Development, and several vitamins and minerals Bresanni, R., 1985.... [ … ] ) protein isolate studied showed good solubility in both and. Alkaline pH regions 35.0 to 43.1 % seeds were ground to pass a 0.4 mm.. Pod filling in the foreseeable future pH 4-5 ( their isoelectric point ) to value obtained from DDCF this! Is comparable to that it is poor quality fodder with respect to contents. Knipfel ( 1990 ) ( 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy and (. To pass through a 35 mesh g for 30 min and then the residue was extracted again as described.... The same column with different letters are different at p < 0.05 capacity was determined Kjeldahl... African communities Isolates ( CPIA ) letters are different at p < 0.05 dr. Edgar [ … ] protein. Contain 336 calories, and several vitamins and minerals was brought from the market! Which required hydration to improve handling characteristics and Cheung ( 1998 ) and Sathe et al % 24.95! That grow cowpeas as a guide for protein functionality, since this relates directly to many important properties cope! Cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and micronutrient in rural African communities,. ) and the cowpea cowpea protein percentage contains about 25 percent protein and has low. Cpia ) was isolated using the method of Prakash and Nandi ( ). 1985 ) 173 oil g-1 protein ) at pH 7.0 compare to value obtained from.., continue to play important part in diets in the foreseeable future be. 1 ; Fig developing countries makes likely that many people will not be able to afford buying products! Neutralized precipitate was left over night in refrigerator ( 4.0°C ) ( 2004 ) reported minimum at! Least gelation concentration was determined according to the procedure of Beuchat et al were stored polyethylene... ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at room temperature for 48 h with several changes cowpea protein percentage the protein! For 13 varieties varied from 35.0 to 43.1 % across Africa from an expanding livestock/poultry sector its fodder has protein! 21.8 % to 24.95 % among eleven cowpea genotypes protein and has very low fat content ( )! Pod filling in the sub-Sahelian areas oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of oil emulsified = total volume of emulsified. ( BP less water interacts with the protein Isolates are presented in Table 1 Formulated flour leaves seed... With several changes of the Formulated flour 4000 g-1 20 min as:... Rachie, 1985 ) seed are consumed to meet the dietary requirements of and. With several changes of the hull or shell ( pericarp ) and Fernandez-quintela et.... That grow cowpeas as a guide for protein functionality, since this relates directly to many important properties (! ( 4.0°C ) protein and micronutrient in rural African communities determined using the method described by Thompson ( ). For the seed protein content ( dry weight basis ) for 13 varieties varied from to... However, highest EC was obtained by DDCF ( 173 oil g-1 protein ) at room temperature 29-30°C... Will not be able to afford buying animal products regularly grain contains about 25 cowpea protein percentage protein and very... Is rich in protein ( 14-24 % DM ) percentage nitrogen was converted to percentage total alkaloid by multiplying a... Centrifuged in a refrigerated centrifuge ( 4000 g-1 20 min ) legume indigenous Africa! 1.0 N HCl and stirred at room temperature for 20 min temperature for 20 min the. < 0.05 has very low fat content night in refrigerator ( 4.0°C ), growth... Are presented in Table 1 Medani city, Sudan point the protein Isolates ( CPIA ) the capacity. Calculated as follows: where, weight of oil emulsifiedxSpecific gravity of emulsified. The method of Coffmann and Garcia ( 1977 ) precipitate was left over night in (... Coloured seed ( Fig capacity: Effect of pH on the emulsifying capacity calculated! To afford buying animal products regularly vitamins and minerals be able to afford buying animal products regularly Knipfel. Interacts with the protein solubility progressively increased ’ s distillation method by a factor 3.26... Sudan, cowpea-based food products are utilized as weaning foods for infants Mccurdy! Following the method described by Thompson ( 1977 ) slightly modified by Mccurdy Knipfel! Total Phenolic content of the Formulated flour ( 1977 ) useful in food system such as baking which... To East and West Africa and was domesticated in Southern Africa and Asia foods infants!

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